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DOCUMENT RESUME 



ED 367 221 HE 027 186 

AUTHOR Bautista, Edna R. 

TITLE Baccalaureate Origins of Education Doctorates around 

the World, 
PUB DATE 18 Feb 94 

NOTE 23p. 

PUB TYPE Reports - Research/Technical (143) 

EDRS PRICE MF01/PC01 Plus Postage, 

DESCRIPTORS *Doctoral Degrees; ^Education Majors; ^Foreign 

Countries; Graduate Study; Higher Education; 
Incidence; Professional Education; *Schools of 
Education; Teacher Educator Education 

ABSTRACT 

This study focused on which countries (besides the 
United States) produced the most doctorates in the education field, 
based on data provided by the National Research Council, The study 
combined the baccalaureate origins of education doctorates with the 
rankings of countries, and considered each country's cultural, 
social, economic, and political practices. Findings include: (1) the 
top five ranked countries which produced the most doctorates in 
education were respectively, Canada, Thailand, Iran, South Korea and 
Taiwan (tie), and Nigeria; (2) the countries tiiit produced the most 
men doctorates in education were Canada, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, 
and South Korea; (3) the countries which produced the most women 
doctorates in education were Thailand, Canada, Taiwan, South Korea, 
and the Philippines; (4) the top-ranked countries which produced more 
men than women doctorates in education were Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, 
Iran, Canada, and Egypt; and (5) the top-ranked countries which 
produced more women than men doctorates in education were Thailand, 
the Philippines, Hong Kong, Brazil, and West Germany. The study notes 
that the U.S. produced more doctorates in education than all the 
other countries combined between 1980 and 1989, and it hypothesizes 
that those nations with egalitarian values, booming industries, and 
stable governments would most likely have more students seeking 
higher education. An appendix provides complete data for all 
countries. (Contains 10 references,) (JDD) 



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4 

Baccalaureate Origins 
1 of Education Doctorates 
s Around the World 



by 

Edna R. Bautista 

Research completed at 

Oklahoma State University 
1013 Wentz Hall 
Stillwater, OK 74077 
(405) 744-4688 



Submitted to 



ERIC 



Clearinghouse on Higher Education 



18 February 1994 




9 

ERIC 



■PERMISSION TO REPRODUCE THIS 
MATERIAL HAS BEEN GRANTED BY 



Edna R. Bautisa 



TO THE EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES 
INFORMATION CENTER (ERIC) " 



z 



U.l. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION 
Off** Of Educ*lK>n*l RtMtrch end Improvement 

EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION 
CENTER (ERIC) 



nhie document has been reproduced a > 
received from the person or org/ »ehon 
origineting it 

O Minor changes heve been mede to inwove 
reproduction quality 

• Po*nta ol vtew ot opinions stateo m (hit docu- 
ment do noi neceiUnly represent ottciei 
OERl poeil*on or policy 



SUMMARY 

Countries other than the United States of America have fared well in comparative rankings 
regarding education during the 1980s. This study focused on which countries produced 
the most doctorates in the education field based on data provided by the National 
Research Council. Each country's cultural/social/economic/political practices during the 
immediate past decade were also considered for the data analysis of this study. 

The top five-ranked countries which produced the most doctorates in education 
were, respectively, Canada, Thailand, Iran, South Korea and Taiwan (tie) and Nigeria. 

The top five-ranked countries which produced the most men doctorates in 
education were, respectively, Canada, Iran, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria and South Korea. 

The top five-ranked countries which produced the most women doctorates in 
education were, respectively, Thailand, Canada, Taiwan, South Korea and the 
Philippines. 

The top five-ranked countries which produced more men than women doctorates in 
education were, respectively, Saudi Arabia, Nigeria, Iran, Canada and Egypt. 

The top five-ranked countries which produced more women than men doctorates in 
education were, respectively, Thailand, the Philippines, Hong Kong, Brazil and West 
Germany. 



NOTES ON THE CONTRIBUTOR 

Edna R. Bautista is a candidate for the Doctor of Education degree in higher 
education/mass communications at Oklahoma State University where she is interested in 
studying curriculum of international journalism programs. She earned her Master of 
Science degree in mass communications at Oklahoma State University in May, 1991, and 
her Bachelor of Arts degree in communication at Chaminade University of Honolulu in 
December, 1989. She thanks her advisor, Dr. David S. Webster, for supporting this 
study. 



Baccalaureate Origins of 
Education Doctorates Around 
the World 

EDNA R. BAUTISTA 

Introduction and Methodology 

The United States of America (USA) ranks first in the world for the country which 
produced the highest number of people who eventually earned doctoral degrees in 
education between 1980 and 1989. 

In comparing higher education, the USA was used as a basis to study how other 
countries ranked in their production of doctorates in education. 

Comparative education in general in the USA has been a topic of concern for 
scholars in this field and for the government agencies. 

"Indeed, it has been a source of concern since 1957, when Sputnik went into orbit- 
-an event that was interpreted as reflecting American inferiority in science and 
technology," wrote Torsten Husen, professor in the Institute of International Education at 
the University of Stockholm, Sweden, in his 1983 article entitled, "Are Standards in U.S. 
Schools Really Lagging Behind Those In Other Countries?" which appeared in Phi Delta 
Kappan. "But this time the concern is somewhat different: the declining 
competitiveness of American high-technology products. And this time it is not the 
Soviets but the Japanese who cause concern." 

But one comparison of proving the quality of higher education in the USA is 
through international rankings, more specifically, which result from baccalaureate origin 
studies. 



2 



Some studies, like this one, focus of specific fields. M. Elizabeth Tidball and Vera 
Kistiakowsky focused on the "Baccalaureate Origins of American Scientists and Scholars" 
in 1976. Alfred E. Hall focused on the "Baccalaureate Origins of Doctoral Recipients in 
Psychology: 1920-1980" in 1985. And an unidentified scholar focused on the 
"Baccalaureate Origins of Recent Natural Science Doctorates" in 1986. 

Additionally, rankings of countries based on various aspects of the education 
systems (government expenditures, enrollment, student-teacher ratios or literacy rates) 
appear in statistical yearbooks such as Book of Vital World Statistics, Book of World City 
Rankings and The New Book of World Rankings. 

This particular study, however, combined the baccalaureate origins of education 
doctorates with the rankings of countries, and specifically focused on which of them, 
besides the USA, 

1) produced the most doctorates in education between 1980 and 1989, 

2) produced the most men who earned doctorates in education between 1980 
and 1989, 

3) produced the most women who earned doctorates in education between 
1980 and 1989, 

4) produced more men than women who earned doctorates in education 
between 1980 and 1989, and 

5) produced more women than men who earned doctorates in education 
between 1980 and 1989. 

Ee.ch country's cuitural/social/economic/political practices during the immediate 
past decade were also considered for the interpretation of the findings/rankings of this 
study. 



9 

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6 



3 



Data about baccalaureate origins of doctorates in the field of education from each 
country were extracted from a recent report, Survey of Earned Doctorates, organized by 
the National Research council. 

Refer to the appendix for complete data of all countries in alphabetical order. 
Findings for this study, which show the top five ranked countries per category, were 
summarized in tables. 



Findings 

Countries with Most Doctorates in Education 

The USA's northern and most comparable neighbor, Canada, ranked first as the country 
which produced the most doctorates in education in the world, behind USA (total: 
60,913). "No socialist of communist country has ever surpassed the USA or Canada in 
this ranking" (Kurian, 1991). 

Canada's first position in this category is justified by its high national literacy rate 
(99%), educational expenditure per capita ($983) and its stable political and economic 
situation during the 1980s. 

Three Asian countries, Thailand, South Korea and Taiwan, also were ranked in the 
top five of this category. Their rankings perhaps are due to the fact that they are also 
among the highly industrialized nations in Asia. 



9 

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7 



4 



Clearly, industrialization is closely linked with providing postsecondary education to 
an expanding corps of engineers, specialists and scientists. Quite 
remarkable is South Korea s experience; in 1988, the total number of its 
postsecondary students was 120 times higher (almost 1 million) than in 
1945 (Kurian, 1991). 

Moreover, South Korea's rank is admirable since that country's attention on higher 
education was diverted instead to the threat of North Korean invasion, student 
demonstrations against the government, the loss of a commercial plane over a disputed 
Soviet air territory and the 1988 Summer Olympic Games. 

Also, despite their drastic political transitions during the 1980s, Iran in Eurasia and 
Nigeria in Africa also were included in the ranking of which countries produced the most 
doctorates in education. 

Iran's doctorate production seemed undisturbed by the turn-of-the-decade 
hostage crisis; the war with its neighbor, Iraq; the fall of the Shah and the return to 
fundamental Islam under the Ayatollah Khomeini. 

Likewise, Nigeria's doctorate production survived the military overthrow of its 
democratic government. 



INSERT TABLE I HERE 



EMC 



8 



5 



Countries with Most Men Doctorates in Education 

Canada produced the most men doctorates in education, after the USA (total: 28,654), 
and was followed by Iran in Eurasia, Saudi Arabia in the Middle East, Nigeria in Africa and 
South Korea in Northeast Asia. 

Although South Korea has a higher male literacy rate (97.5%) than that of Canada 
(95.6%), the latter country still ranked first in this category. 

The other top three countries, Iran, Saudi Arabia and Nigeria, although each 
country has low male literacy rates of 55.4%, 58% and 53.8%, respectively, ranked highly, 
reflecting predominant, societal attitudes of encouraging men over women to seek higher 
education. 



INSERT TABLE I! HERE 



Countries with Most Women Doctorates in Education 

The Asian countries dominated the rankings with most women doctorates in education. 
Although it ranked a close second behind Thailand, Canada also appeared again on this 
category's list. Note that the USA's total for women doctorates in education is 32,259. 

All countries ranked in this category have very high female literacy rates (between 
84.5% and 95.7%). 

With few exceptions, the female populations of all nation-states tend to be more 



9 

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9 



6 



illiterate than male populations. This partly reflects the fact that women 
are more numerous than men in a majority of nation-states. It also points 
out a substantial prejudice against female education. ...Muslim nations 
also discriminate against female literacy, and until recently, sending a girl 
to school constituted a crime in some of them. ..However, these policies 
are being overturned, and the number of females enrolled in Muslim 
schools and universities has risen dramatically (Kurian, 1991). 
Enrollment of women in Canadian schools and universities also has gradually 
increased, perhaps being influenced by the women in its southern neighboring country, 
the USA, who earned some equal rights during the 1970s. 

Even Asian women have moved for equal rights. Once stereotyped as the "docile, 
submissive Oriental dolL.or the Suzie Wong, sex-pot.. .efficient secretary, sexy 
stewardess (or) the good housekeeper and domestic," Asian women, such as those in 
Thailand, Taiwan, South Korea and the Philippines, have emerged as heads of states, 
administrators and doctorates {Asian Women, 1971). 



INSERT TABLE III HERE 



Countries with More Men than Women Doctorates in Education 

Two Middle-Eastern neighbors, Saudi Arabia and Egypt, ranked in the top five countries 
with more men than women doctorates in education. Nigeria in Africa, Iran in Eurasia and 



eric 



7 



Canada in North America were also included in this ranking. The USA did not even rank in 
this category. 

In many places, there still exists today widespread discrimination and prejudice 
against women receiving university educations and entering public life- 
even though it may be the case that they make better university 
students. ...Historically, Islamic and African countries have most 
discriminated against women (Kurian, ). 

Four of these countries, with the exception of Canada, are Islamic countries. 



INSERT TABLE IV HERE 



Countries with More Women than Men Doctorates 

Three Asian countries, Thailand, the Philippines and Hong Kong, ranked in the top three 
of this category, after the USA (total: -3,605) and was followed, respectively, by a Latin 
American and European country, Brazil and West Germany. 

Again, the rising status of Asian women, especially in higher education, is 
evidenced in this category. 

An unexpected ranking, however, was made by Brazil. It is the only Latin American 
country which ranked in any of the categories in this study and it is the only and largest 
Latin American country which is of the Portuguese instead of the Spanish culture. Also, 



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11 



8 



Brazil "has a large and dynamic economy compared with most of Latin America" (Flora, 
1982). and its fourth rank could have been attributed to the "economic miracle 1 of the 
1970s, when many Brazilian women sought better social and equal opportunities through 
employment and higher education. 

And facing similar, historically social and equal opportunity influences is fifth ranked 
West Germany, the only European country ever to place in any of the categories of this 
study. With its recent reunification with East Germany, its position will probably change in 
future rankings. 



INSERT TABLE V HERE 



Conclusions 

While the USA produced the most doctorates in education (60,913) than all the other 
countries combined (5,992) between 1980 and 1989, it should be noted that the USA's 
position may change when comparing it to other countries, depending on (he number of 
institutions of higher education, cultural/social/economic/political practices, population 
and field of study. 

Depending on the number of institutions of higher education per country, 
hypothetical^, those nations with more universities and colleges would most likely 
produce more baccalaureate recipients and with more opportunities for them to pursue 



9 

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12 



9 



doctoral study. If this factor was taken into account, these international rankings definitely 
would be altered. 

An initial attempt was made for this study to rank countries by the proportion of 
education doctorates to the number of institutions of higher education. However, the 
ratios could not be calculated because United Nations source books provided 
inconsistent statistics. Frequently, these statistics per country included the total number 
of universities and colleges with the addition of normal schools and vocational institutes 
under the tertiary education tables, and provided estimates of the total number of schools 
or, simply, figures were not available at all. 

Depending on the cultural/social/economic/political practices of a country, 
hypothetical^, those nations with egalitarian values, booming industries and stable 
governments would most likely have more students attending schools with 
encouragement for them to seek higher education. 
Martin, et. al (1986) confirmed that 

education systems are determined by cultural, social, economic, and 
political practices. Centralized education systems, such as those in the 
[former] Soviet Union and the social democratic countries of Western 
Europe, are usually guided and heavily subsidized by national 
government ministries. In decentralized education systems such as 
those in the United States, state, provincial, country, and local 
government agencies control and for the most part finance education 
and schooling. 



13 



10 



Furthermore, "for developing nations, a government's ultimate commitment to 
education is probably best gauged by its education expenditures....Education is directly 
related to industrialization, and demands substantial government investments" (Kurian, 
1991). 

Depending on the population of a country, hypothetical^, those with 
proportionately dense or sparse populations per student would alter these international 
rankings, reflecting those "nation-states whose populations live in predominantly urban 
environments, as city dwellers have relatively easier access to the means of learning" 
(Kurian, 1991). 

And depending on the field of study, these international rankings also would be 
altered. For instance, the USA, former Soviet Union and Japan might show fierce 
competition in the fields of science and technology. 

These rankings of countries by any study, besides by baccalaureate origins, are 
subject to change, especially with the creation of new nations in Europe, the rise of 
economic power in Asia and other events occurring in the 1990s, the last decade of the 
twentieth century. 



14 



11 

REFERENCES 

- — . (1971) Asian women as leaders. Asian Women. (Berkeley, California) 
p. 102. 

- — . (1986) Baccalaureate origins of recent natural science doctorates. Journal 

of Higher Education. 57, pp. 606-20. 
FLORA, CORNELIA BUTLER. (1982) Socialist Feminism In Latin America. 

Working Paper no. 14. Michigan State University. Michigan, p. 10. 
HALL, ALFRED E. (1985) Baccalaureate origins of doctoral recipients in 

psychology: 1920-1980. American Psychologist, 40, pp. 120-122. 
HUSEN, TORSTEN. (1984) Are standards in U.S. schools really lagging 

behind those in other countries?, in: ROBERT EMMET LONG (Ed). (New 

York: H. W. Wilson). 

KURIAN, GEORGE THOMAS. (1991) Education. The New Book of World 

Rankings. 3rded. New York: Facts on File. 
MARLIN, JOHN T., NESS, IMMANUEL. & COLLINS, STEPHEN. T. (1986) 

Book of World City Rankings. (New York: Free Press), pp. 594-599. 
NATIONAL RESEARCH COUNCIL. (1992) Survey of Earned Doctorates. 

(Washington, D.C.: National Research Council). 
■ (1990). Tertiary education. Book of Vital World Statistics. (New York: 

The Economist Books, Ltd.). pp. 208-209. 
TIDBALL, M. ELIZABETH & KISTIAKOWSKY, V. (1976) Baccalaureate 

origins of American scientists and scholars. Science, 193, pp. 646-652. 



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TABLE 1. 


Countries with most doctorates in education during the 1980s 


HanK 


Country 


Total doctors 


1 


Canada 


672 


2 


Thailand 


464 


3 


Iran 


390 


4 


South Korea 


344 


4 


Taiwan (Republic of China) 


344 


5 


Nigeria 


272 



ERIC 



16 



13 



TABLE II. Countries with most men doctorates In education 
during the 1980s 



Rank 


Country 


Total men doctors 


1 


Canada 


405 


2 


Iran 


390 


3 


Saudi Arabia 


250 


4 


Nigeria 


235 


5 


South Korea 


215 



17 



14 



TABLE III. Countries with most women doctorates In education 

during the 1980s 



Rank 


Country 


Total women doctors 


1 


Thailand 


268 


2 


Canada 


267 


3 


Taiwan (Republic of China) 


145 


4 


South Korea 


129 


5 


Philippines 


111 



18 

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15 



TABLE IV, Countries with more men than women 
doctorates In education during the 1980s 



Rank Country Men-women 

difference 

1 Saudi Arabia 238 

2 Nigeria 1 98 

3 Iran 1 72 

4 Canada 1 33 

5 Egypt 129 



16 



TABLE V. Countries with more women than men 
doctorates In education during the 1980s 



Rank 


Country 


Men-women 
difference 


1 


Thailand 


-71 


2 


Philippines 


-67 


3 


Hong Kong 


-23 


4 


Brazil 


-19 


5 


West Germany 


-15 





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23